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هندو دین

ویکی‌پدیا، آزادِ دانشنومه، جه
اُم هندوئیسم ِسمبل هسته.

هندویِ دین' یا هندوئیسم[۱][۲] اتا هندستونی دین یا دارما هسته؛ ونه په‌روون که جور-وا-جور عقاید دارنه، اتا واحدِ جهونی نظم و سیستم ره در-بند هستنه.[note ۱][note ۲] خِدی هندو واژه اتا مستعار نوم هسته،[note ۳] درحالی‌که هندوئیسم قدیمی‌ترین دینی هسته که حلا دنیا دله باقی دره،[note ۴] وه ره ساناتانا دارما (سانسکریت جه: सनातन धर्म) نومی هم إشناسنّه چون هندوها شه باور دارنه که ونه بگذشتی و تاریخ، آدمون و بنی‌بشر جه قدیم‌ته هسته و وشونِ مقدس کتابون دله اینتی گنه.[note ۵] وه ره اتی نوم دیگه هم إشناسنّه که وائیدیکا دارما هسه که وشونِ کتاب جه إشاره زنده.[web ۱]

هندوها شه خله مختلفِ فکر دارنه ولی وشون دله ات‌سری مفاهیم، خدائون، اسطوره‌ای آسنی‌ئون هم‌بازی هسه.[۳] وشونِ گت‌ترین مذهبون نوم ویشنائیسم, شیوائیسم, شاکتیسم و سمارتا سنت هستنه. وشون شیش‌تا فلسفی مکتب دارنه که وداها ره برسمیت إشناسنه: سانخیا, یوگا, نیایا, وایشیشیکا, میمامسا و ودانتا.[۴][۵] وشون کتابون هم رَج‌وَندی دارنه و ات دسته ره سروتی ("بشنوستی") و اتی دیگر ره سمریتی ("حفظ هاکرد") گنّه. هندوهایِ گتِ کتاب نوم وداها هسته و ونه وَر اوپانیشتاد, پورانا, مهابهاراتا, رامیانا و آگاما هم درنه.[۶][۷] مهمترین مفاهیمی که هندو مذاهب میون هم‌باز هستنه جه کارما هسته که گنه آدمون بدی همین دنیا دله وشون هِخ ره گیرنه.[۶][۸] علایده برین، وشون چارتا پوروشارتا یعنن هدف و أرمون دارنه که آدمونِ زندگی وسّه لازم دونّه: دارما (اخلاق و وظایف)، آرتا (کامیابی و کار)، کاما (امیال و احساسات) و موکشا (رهایی و سمساره جه رها بیّن).[۹][۱۰] هندو دین دله عبادت شامل راز-نیاز (بهاکتی)، پرستش (پوجا، قربونی بکوشتن (یاجنا)، مراقبه (دهیانا و یوگا) وونه.[۱۱]

هندوهایِ ایتیهاسا-پورانا سنت و وشونِ اساطیری تقویم گنه که هندویِ دین هزارون سال قدمت دارنه؛ ولی إسا محققون گنّه که هندوئیسم دین اتا پشو-بخرد و تلفیقی آیین هسته که [note ۶][note ۷] براهمنی ِاورتودکس دین[note ۸] و هندوهایِ محلی فرهنگ[note ۹] جه ریشه گیرنه[note ۱۰] و نتومبی اینتا دین وسّه اتا مؤسس پیدا هاکنیم.[۱۲] این ادیان و فرهنگ‌های پشو بخردن حدود ۵۰۰ تا ۲۰۰ پیش از میلاد شنه که ودایی کتابون ره بنویشتنه[۱۳][۱۴][۱۳] وشون این گدر شهرنشینی ره په گیتنه و هندوئیسم ادبیاتِ کلاسیک دوره این گدر شروع وونه که پورانا آسنی ره بنویشتنه و اولین اساطیر شکل بیته.[۱۳][۱۴] قرون وسطا گدر که بودایی دین ضعیف بیّه، هندوئیسم جان بیته و په‌روو پیدا هاکرده.[۱۵] قرن نوزهم بی‌یه که غربیون وسّه هم یوگاه و مدیتیشن و کریشنایِ رِمبِش جذابیت پیدا هاکرده.

هندو دین سومین دینی هسته که دنیا دله ویشترین په‌روون ره دارنه و حدود ۱٫۲۰ میلیارد نفر هندو درنه که حول-حوش ۱۵ درصد آدمونِ جمیعت وونّه.[۱۶][web ۲][web ۳] وشون ویشته هند کشور درنه ولی[۱۷] نپال, موریس, و بالی (اندونزی) دله هم خله هستنه.[۱۸] خله از وشون هم إسا دنیا دله تنک-تِرو بینه و جنوبی آمریکا یا خاورمیونه دله درنه.[۱۹][۲۰]

یادداشت[دچی‌ین]

  1. Hinduism is variously defined as a "religion", "set of religious beliefs and practices", "religious tradition", "a way of life" شابلون:Harv etc. For a discussion on the topic, see: "Establishing the boundaries" in Flood 2003, pp. 1–17
  2. There is no single-word translation for dharma in Western languages.شابلون:Harvشابلون:Harv
    The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Dharma, defines dharma as follows: "the order and custom which make life and a universe possible, and thus to the behaviours appropriate to the maintenance of that order." See Dharma (righteousness, ethics).
  3. There are several views on the earliest mention of 'Hindu' in the context of religion:
    • Flood 1996, p. 6 states: "In Arabic texts, Al-Hind is a term used for the people of modern-day India and 'Hindu', or 'Hindoo', was used towards the end of the eighteenth century by the British to refer to the people of 'Hindustan', the people of northwest India. Eventually 'Hindu' became virtually equivalent to an 'Indian' who was not a Muslim, Sikh, Jain, or Christian, thereby encompassing a range of religious beliefs and practices. The '-ism' was added to Hindu in around 1830 to denote the culture and religion of the high-caste Brahmans in contrast to other religions, and the term was soon appropriated by Indians themselves in the context of building a national identity opposed to colonialism, though the term 'Hindu' was used in Sanskrit and Bengali hagiographic texts in contrast to 'Yavana' or Muslim as early as the sixteenth century."
    • Sharma 2002 and other scholars state that the 7th-century Chinese scholar Xuanzang, whose 17-year travel to India and interactions with its people and religions were recorded and preserved in the Chinese language, uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious".شابلون:Harv Xuanzang describes Hindu Deva-temples of the early 7th century CE, worship of Sun deity and Shiva, his debates with scholars of Samkhya and Vaisheshika schools of Hindu philosophies, monks and monasteries of Hindus, Jains and Buddhists (both Mahayana and Theravada), and the study of the Vedas along with Buddhist texts at Nalanda. See also Gosch & Stearns 2007, pp. 88–99, Sharma 2011, pp. 5–12, Smith et al. 2012, pp. 321–324.
    • Sharma 2002 also mentions the use of the word Hindu in Islamic texts such as those relating to the 8th-century Arab invasion of Sindh by Muhammad ibn Qasim, Al Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, and those of the Delhi Sultanate period, where the term Hindu retains the ambiguities of including all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists and of being "a region or a religion".
    • Lorenzen 2006 states, citing Richard Eaton: "one of the earliest occurrences of the word 'Hindu' in Islamic literature appears in 'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-Salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350. In this text, 'Isami uses the word 'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word 'hindu' to mean 'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion".شابلون:Harv
    • Lorenzen 2006, pp. 32–33 also mentions other non-Persian texts such as Prithvíráj Ráso by ~12th century Canda Baradai, and epigraphical inscription evidence from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim dynasties in the 14th century, where the word 'Hindu' partly implies a religious identity in contrast to 'Turks' or Islamic religious identity.
    • Lorenzen 2006, p. 15 states that one of the earliest uses of word 'Hindu' in religious context, in a European language (Spanish), was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.
  4. See:
    • Fowler 1997, p. 1: "probably the oldest religion in the world."
    • Klostermaier 2007, p. 1: The "oldest living major religion" in the world.
    • Kurien 2006: "There are almost a billion Hindus living on Earth. They practice the world's oldest religion..."
    • Bakker 1997: "it [Hinduism] is the oldest religion".
    • Noble 1998: "Hinduism, the world's oldest surviving religion, continues to provide the framework for daily life in much of South Asia."
    Smart 1993, p. 1, on the other hand, calls it also one of the youngest religions: "Hinduism could be seen to be much more recent, though with various ancient roots: in a sense it was formed in the late 19th Century and early 20th Century."
    Animism has also been called "the oldest religion."(Sponsel 2012: "Animism is by far the oldest religion in the world. Its antiquity seems to go back at least as far as the period of the Neanderthals some 60,000 to 80,000 years ago.")
    Australian linguist, R. M. W. Dixon discovered that Aboriginal myths regarding the origin of the Crater Lakes might be dated as accurate back to 10,000 years ago.شابلون:Harv
    See also:
  5. Santana dharma:
    • Harvey 2001, p. xiii: "In modern Indian usage, sanātana dharma is often equated with 'Hinduism' as a name, stressing the eternal foundation of it."
    • Knott 1998, p. 5: "Many describe Hinduism as sanatana dharma, the eternal tradition or religion. This refers to the idea that its origins lie beyond human history.";
    • Knott 1998, p. 117: " The phrase sanatana dharma, eternal tradition, used often by Hindus to describe their religion, implies antiquity, but its usage is modern."
    • Parpola 2015, p. 3: "Some Indians object to having a foreign term for their religion, preferring the Sanskrit expression sanātana dharma, "eternal law or truth," despite the fact that this expression was not applied to any religious system in ancient texts."
  6. Lockard 2007, p. 50: "The encounters that resulted from Aryan migration brought together several very different peoples and cultures, reconfiguring Indian society. Over many centuries a fusion of Aryan and Dravidian occurred, a complex process that historians have labeled the Indo-Aryan synthesis."
    Lockard 2007, p. 52: "Hinduism can be seen historically as a synthesis of Aryan beliefs with Harappan and other Dravidian traditions that developed over many centuries."
  7. منبع خطا: برچسب <ref> نامعتبر؛ متنی برای ارجاع‌های با نام Hiltebeitel-synthesis وارد نشده است
  8. See: According to Heesterman 2005, Brahmanism developed out of the Historical Vedic religion; "It is loosely known as Brahmanism because of the religious and legal importance it places on the brāhmaṇa (priestly) class of society." According to Witzel 1995, this development started around 1000 BCE in the Kuru Kingdom, with the Brahmins providing elaborate rituals to enhance the status of the Kuru kings.
  9. See also:
    • Ghurye 1980, pp. 3–4: "He [J. H. Hutton, the Commissioner of the Census of 1931] considers modern Hinduism to be the result of an amalgam between pre-Aryan Indian beliefs of Mediterranean inspiration and the religion of the Rigveda. 'The Tribal religions present, as it were, surplus material not yet built into the temple of Hinduism'."
    • Zimmer 1951, pp. 218–219.
    • Sjoberg 1990, p. 43. Quote: [Tyler (1973). India: An Anthropological Perspective. p. 68.]; "The Hindu synthesis was less the dialectical reduction of orthodoxy and heterodoxy than the resurgence of the ancient, aboriginal Indus civilization. In this process the rude, barbaric Aryan tribes were gradually civilised and eventually merged with the autochthonous Dravidians. Although elements of their domestic cult and ritualism were jealously preserved by Brahman priests, the body of their culture survived only in fragmentary tales and allegories embedded in vast, syncretistic compendia. On the whole, the Aryan contribution to Indian culture is insignificant. The essential pattern of Indian culture was already established in the third millennium B.C., and ... the form of Indian civilization perdured and eventually reasserted itself."
    • Sjoberg 1990.
    • Flood 1996, p. 16: "Contemporary Hinduism cannot be traced to a common origin [...] The many traditions which feed into contemporary Hinduism can be subsumed under three broad headings: the tradition of Brahmanical orthopraxy, the renouncer traditions and popular or local traditions. The tradition of Brahmanical orthopraxy has played the role of 'master narrative', transmitting a body of knowledge and behaviour through time, and defining the conditions of orthopraxy, such as adherence to varnasramadharma."
    • Nath 2001.
    • Werner 1998.
    • Werner 2005, pp. 8–9.
    • Lockard 2007, p. 50.
    • Hiltebeitel 2002.
    • Hopfe & Woodward 2008, p. 79: "The religion that the Aryans brought with them mingled with the religion of the native people, and the culture that developed between them became classical Hinduism."
    • Samuel 2010.
  10. Among its roots are the Vedic religion of the late Vedic period (Flood 1996, p. 16) and its emphasis on the status of Brahmans (Samuel 2008, pp. 48–53), but also the religions of the Indus Valley civilisation (Narayanan 2009, p. 11; Lockard 2007, p. 52; Hiltebeitel 2002, p. 3; Jones & Ryan 2007, p. xviii) the śramaṇa or renouncer traditions of northeastern India (Flood 1996, p. 16; Gomez 2013, p. 42), with possible roots in a non-Vedic Indo-Aryan culture (Bronkhorst 2007); and "popular or local traditions" (Flood 1996, p. 16) and prehistoric cultures "that thrived in South Asia long before the creation of textual evidence that we can decipher with any confidence."Doniger 2010, p. 66)
منبع خطا: برچسپ <ref> که با نام «Sweetman» درون <references> تعریف شده، در متن قبل از آن استفاده نشده است.

منابع[دچی‌ین]

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  2. شابلون:Cite Dictionary.com
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  5. Nicholson, Andrew (2013). Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History. Columbia University Press. pp. 2–5. ISBN 978-0-231-14987-7.
  6. ۶٫۰ ۶٫۱ Klostermaier 2007, pp. 46–52, 76–77.
  7. Zaehner, R. C. (1992). Hindu Scriptures. Penguin Random House. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-0-679-41078-2. Archived from the original on 28 March 2024. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
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  10. Flood 1996, p. 7.
  11. منبع خطا: برچسب <ref> نامعتبر؛ متنی برای ارجاع‌های با نام ellinger70 وارد نشده است
  12. Fowler 1997, pp. 1, 7.
  13. ۱۳٫۰ ۱۳٫۱ ۱۳٫۲ Hiltebeitel 2002, p. 12.
  14. ۱۴٫۰ ۱۴٫۱ Larson 2009.
  15. Larson 1995, pp. 109–111.
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  18. Gonda 1975; Bakker 1997; Howe 2001; Stuart-Fox 2002.
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    شابلون:Spaced en dash space"Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Numbers (2010)". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 18 December 2012. Archived from the original on 1 February 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
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